Archaeology Sites in the State with details views
This Site in Ella (Old Goa) was the settlement of learned Brahmins from ancient times called as ‘Brahmapuri’. Shiva under the name “Gomanteshwar” is venerated here. The original temple is reported to have been constructed in the 14th Century C.E. It is believed that the ancient holy place of worship of Gomanteshwar was destroyed by the Bahamani Kings and the same was rebuilt by Madhava Mantri a minister of the Vijayanagar Empire. A tank near the temple is known as Madhava Tirth. This temple was again destroyed by the Portuguese during their conquest of Goa in early 16th Century C.E.
Now Madhav Tirth and a tank exist at this site along with a recently built temple.
In the area near the site of the College of St. Paul, at Old Goa, stands a small traditional Chapel of St. Francis Xavier. As per popular belief, Saint Francis Xavier used to offer masses here. This Chapel was dedicated to Saint Francis Xavier after his canonization in 1622. After the College of St Paul was abandoned in 1570, the chapel fell into ruins and the present chapel was re-built in 1884. It has one altar and its architecture is of Doric order.
Situated on the hill, the Chapel of Our Lady of Monte was constructed in 1557, many years after the conquest of Goa to mark the place where Adil Khan took the position with his artillery. It is called by the name of Nossa Senhora de Monte. It is situated on a hill which commands a picturesque view of several historical monuments of Old Goa.
The College of St. Populo also known as Collegio de Populo was situated near the Convent of Augustinians. It was built in 1600 by the Provincial Fr. Pedro da Cruz for the training of the young brethren (brothers) of the Augustinian order. Group of buildings of Augustinians including this college was abandoned in 1835.
This monument is opposite to the Church St. Augustine. Foundation of this Convent was laid by H.H. Archbishop, Dom Fr. Aleixo de Menezes on July 2nd, 1606 and construction was completed in 1627. The Convent of St. Monica is the oldest and biggest nunnery in the whole of Eastern Asia. The Church of St. Monica (chapel of Weeping Cross) is attached to the Convent. The main altar is dedicated to Santa Monica, mother of St. Augustine while the side altars are dedicated to Divine Jesus and Virgin Mary. There is also an altar dedicated to Christ (Weeping Cross). The convent is large enough to accommodate a hundred nuns. From 1954 the building was taken over by the Portuguese Army as a barracks and by Indian troops in 1962 and was handed back to the Church in 1968.
The Church was erected in the year 1542 by Portuguese Architects. This Parish Church is dedicated to St. Peter, the Prince of Apostles. The floor of this Church displays some effaced inscriptions. During the 17th Century the Palace of the Archbishop, situated at Panelim was a part of this Parish.
CASA DE POLVORA’ or gunpowder factory was erected by the Viceroy Dom Francisco da Gama (1622-1628). It was established for the production of 3 types of gunpowder that is for warfare, pyrotechnic (firework display) and for hunting. By the Decree of 25th November 1869, the factory was shut down.
Situated on the island of Diwar, which is opposite to the Portuguese period city of Old Goa. The fort was built in between the period of 17th to 18th Century C.E. It was primarily erected in the year 1710 under the guidance of Diogo Da Silveira. It was abandoned in 1834
Historical records suggest that this site of the temple of Saptakoteshwar located at Naroa in Diwar existed during the Kadamba period (10th -14th Century C.E). This deity was the family deity of the Kadamba rulers. The rock-cut tank of this temple was known as ‘Koti-Tirth’. The Kadamba kings patronized this deity and popularized it in their coins and copper plates. During the Bahamani rule (1355 -66) this temple was destroyed. It was in 1391 A.D, that Madhava Mantri, Minister of Vijayanagar kingdom re-established the temple. In 1540 the temple was completely destroyed by the Portuguese. By 1558 the deity was shifted across the river of Naroa in Hindale (present-day Narve village) village of Bicholim Taluka.
This 16th Century Chapel also known as ‘Compro’ is dedicated to St. Jeronimus. It was a part of the then seminary of Chorao where spirituality and theology were taught. This seminary existed until 1886 as is evident from the Lopes Mendes illustrations from 1886. This Chapel is circular in shape with a dome at the top and pillared verandah around.
In 1930 Fr. Henry Heras excavated the site at MushirvadaColvale and an image of Buddha was found here. The Image of Buddha is currently preserved at Heras Institute, Mumbai.
Fort of Colvale, also known as St. Minguel Fort is located on the Northern border of the Bardez Taluka, on the left bank of river Colvale. This is complex of four forts namely St. Thom’e de Colvale, Fort of St. Minguel Thivim, Nossa Senhora de Assumpsao de Thivim & Nossa Senhora de Livramento de Thivim in an area of about approximate 4.5 km in Colvale-Thivim region from Colvale upto the hill of Thivim all four of them were built in one line at different times for strategic reasons.
Fort of Colvale was constructed by the Portuguese in 1635 A.D during the tenure of Viceroy Conde de Linhares as a barrier against the inroads and to safeguard the region from the attack of the Marathas and other enemies. The Year 1667 witnessed the battle between Shivaji and Portuguese at this Fort. It was taken by the Bhonsles and recaptured by the Marquis de Lourical and after the 17th century it was neglected and went to ruin. Chapel of St. Minguel is in the vicinity of fort complex.
It is situated on a strategic point on the South-eastern extremity of the table land on the right bank of the river Mandovi at Verem, Bardez. It was constructed in 1551 and later on enlarged in 1707. It overlooks the city of Panaji. Prior to Portuguese occupation, the Adilshah of Bijapur had constructed an outpost there. It must have attained the name of Reis Magos upon the construction of the first church in Bardez i.e. Reis Magos Church. True, this fortress is smaller in size than that of Cabo de Rama, Chapora, etc. and is irregular and disproportionate but it commands a panoramic view from the promontory which stands just near the mouth of river Mandovi. Before liberation, this fort was used to house political prisoners where many prominent freedom fighters had been jailed and after liberation, it was converted into a sub-jail. It ceased to be a sub-jail w.e.f.2.7.1993.
This Royal Church was erected in the 16th century. It is dedicated to the Magi kings namely Gasper, Baltazar, and Melchior; it was an important institution for the Portuguese. Each new Viceroy who arrived in Goa would disembark here before entering the capital at Velha Goa (today’s Old Goa). Viceroys who died in Goa were buried here as can be seen from the Commemorative slabs. The feast of Reis Magos which is popularly known as the ‘Three Kings Feast’ is celebrated here on 6th January every year, is a major event in the religious calendar of Goa.
The fort of Chapora is located on the hillock of Caisua village on the mouth of river Chapora in Bardez Taluka. It is believed that the area was well known for shipping activity prior to the Portuguese period. The fort of Chapora was built in 1717 A.D during the tenure of Conde de Ericeira, the then Portuguese Viceroy of Goa. It was meant for the defense of the Portuguese territories and also served the purpose of control over the trading activities. In 1789 it was conquered by the Bhosles of Sawantwadi and held for two years before being taken back by the Portuguese.
The fort is fortified with laterite wall with several gun and cannon points and five bastions. There are archival documents referring to the existence of gunpowder storage on this fort. This Fort has played a significant role in the history of Goa.
This is a temple dedicated to Shiva, worshipped in the form of a Linga as Saptakoteshwar. It was originally situated at Naroa, Diwar. During the Portuguese persecution it was shifted to Narve Bicholim where Chhatrapati Shivaji, the great Maratha ruler ordered its construction on 13th November 1668. The interior walls of the temple are decorated with kaavi art. In the sabhamandap there is a black stone (granite) image of Nandi facing the Shivlinga. Above the entrance door of the sabhamandap is the inscription of Chhatrapati Shivaji. In front of the temple there is a Dipsthamba with Nagabandha (band of snake motifs). Behind the temple, there are niches carved in laterite and ancient pathway known as ‘Paaz’.
Three rock-cut caves, ruins of a Jain kot and a spring can be seen in the vicinity of this temple complex.
This is a site of two lateritic rock-cut caves which can be dated to the early medieval period. It is situated on the rear side of the well-known Shri Saptakoteshwar temple at Narve, Bicholim
Cave 1: Consists of a Sanctum and open verandah with plain and cubical pillars, pilasters breaking the blank on the façade architecturally similar to the cave of Aravalem. A lion idol (main deity) carved on basalt stone is placed over the raised pitha in the Sanctum. On its circular platform, there is a Brahmi inscription referring to a pious woman who has made the donation.
Cave 2: Situated on the right side of the cave no.1, is a simple cave, without pillars and verandah but has a raised pitha.
Another rock-cut shrine is located roughly 300 mts away from here. It is devoid of pillars with a small open verandah. A linga and Nandi of the later period is housed in this cave.
A site known as ‘Jain Kot’ is situated in close vicinity of this cave which makes this area historically significant.
This is a site of Jaina temple located at ‘Gujirwado’, it was one of the trade centers since the early medieval period. This temple was cleared from the debris in 1986. An image of Tirthankara was found here. In the vicinity of this temple, there are eight memorial shrines locally known as thadgi belonging to the same period on a small hillock. Ruins of a Surya Temple can also be seen in front of this temple at a close distance.
This fortification belonged to the Mughals, who had constructed it on the banks of river Valonti, the tributary of the Mandovi in the 17th Century. The Fort falls in the province of Sattari, which was under the control of Khem Sawant Bhonsle from 1701 onwards. It was conquered by the Portuguese in 1746. It was the most important military post in the province of Sattari in new conquests. The fort was constructed fully with masonry. In the late 19th Century, it was reconstructed and many of its parts were renovated.
Namazgah is a unique example of architectural elegance. It is locally known as Nimuzgo or Idgah. In 1683, the Namazgah was constructed for Prince Akbar, the son of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The main structure with the dome on top faces an open courtyard flanked by long balconies with columns and crescent capitals.
This is the site where the original temple of Shri Mangesh was situated in village Cortalim, Salcete. The temple was destroyed by the Portuguese in the 16th Century and the deity was shifted to Priol village in Ponda taluka.
This is the original place of the temple of Shree Shantadurga which is shifted to Kavale in Ponda taluka after it was destroyed by the Portuguese in 1567. Ancient text ‘Sahyadrikhanda’ mentions about this deity and her temple at this site.
Archival records mention the grandeur of this temple and site prior to its destruction in the 16th Century.
Here existed a magnificent temple of Shri Ramnath prior to its destruction by the Portuguese along with other temples in 1560. Shri Ramnath was worshipped in the form of Linga, which was shifted to Ramnathi at Ponda at the time of destruction. Today only the small shrine dedicated to Shri Ramnath stands as a testimony of this place.
Archival records preserved in Directorate of Archives and Archaeology mention the details of the place in 16th Century.
The ancient temple of Shree Mahalasa was situated at this site in Verna in Salcete. The idol of the goddess was shifted to the present temple at Mardol in Ponda after the destruction of the ancient temple at Verna by the Portuguese in 1567 A.D. The tank attached to the original temple exists at the site. A rock cut figure of Mother Goddess, salvaged from Curdi village in Sanguem taluka is preserved at this site.
The gate of Fort Rachol stands on the bank of the river Zuari in Salcete. This fort was built to defend Salcete from attacks of Maratha and other rulers. In the 16th Century the Fort had 100 cannons fixed on the embrasures of the Curtain walls. It had two gates one being in front of the moat and Curtorim one had a bastion with a bridge. Today, its massive gate stands as a testimony to the historic fort as a protected monument. Parochial Church built in 1576 dedicated to “Nossa Senhora de Neves” is in the close vicinity of Fortress.
This is a lateritic man-made cave of early medieval period. It is popularly known as ‘Pandava Ovreo’ (Cave of Pandava). It has 3 openings and 2 large rooms; with pillars inside. This rock-cut cave is rectangular in shape and is divided into 2 chambers. On both the sides of the northern door there are simple windows (Gavaksha). Inner chamber has peg holes and niches. The Chapel located next to this cave is popularly known as ‘Pandava Chapel’ after this cave (Pandava Cave).
The majestic edifice, also known as ‘Frontispiece’ is a façade of Church of ‘Our Lady of Health’ (NossaSenhora de Saude) was built in 1606 and got destroyed in fire in 1834. Today only the elegantly proportioned Frontispiece with composite pilasters and decorative reliefs survives. Fr. Joseph Vaz has contributed a lot to this village. He was conducing lessons in Latin for the boys of this village who wished to proceed to higher studies. This church complex also stands as a testimony to “Deed of Bondage” by Fr. Joseph Vaz in 1677.
This is a temple dedicated to Chandranath also known as Chandreshwar Bhutnath on the flat topped hill known as Chandranath hill. It appears that Chandranath was worshipped during the rule of Bhojadynasty onwards from the 4the Century C.E.The temple is a beautiful stone structure containing the Shivalinga in its inner chamber. Garbhagriha of this temple was originally a cave carved out from the rock.
It stands on the cape at the extreme end of Cola Village in Canacona and is also called Kholgad. Fort was under the Sunda Kings till 1st June 1763 and subsequently it was seized by the Portuguese. It is surrounded by bastions of diverse forms. There is a deep moat at the entrance. Within the Fort there is Chapel of St. Anthony, barrack and two springs. Lopes Mendes mentions that during 19th Century military barracks were used from infantry and also as artillery quarters.
Archaeological ruins, at this site, display two plinth remnants of temples, roughly dated to the early medieval period, on stylistic basis. One is dedicated to Shri Narayandev & the other to a Shri Mahishasurmardini. These temples built of laterite and granite stone, provide an insight into the past religious activities, in this region, and are valuable sources of cultural evolution in Goa. The image of Shri Narayandev, in standing pose, in the “Garbhagriha” (sanctum sanctorum) of one temple plinth, has a “Prabhavall” ( decorativearch), carved with the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu (Dashavatar). A ‘Garuda’ (eagle) sculpture is found in the ‘Sabhamandap’ (hall). The plinth of the temple is decorated with diamond and floral patterns.
This is a natural cave improvised upon by humans in the early medieval period. It has a stepped laterite platform carved towards its rear interior wall. Many man-made features are seen on the rear wall of this cave. On the exterior left, a flight of stairs is cut into the laterite rock-face which leads towards the roof of the cave. Based on the discovery of a headless image of Buddha found in the close vicinity of the cave, many historians believe that this cave was used by Buddhist monks for meditation.
Situated on the banks of the Khandepar River, this is a four Monolithic, laterite-cut, cave temple complex. Scholars have dated these caves to the 11th Century. A raised courtyard, in front of these caves displays three water storing cisterns, cut into the laterite. Three of these caves have 2-cells each, and the fourth cave, comprises a single cell, holding a ‘Shiva Linga’ on a ‘Yonipitha’ (base). Shikhara’s (Roofs) are constructed above all the four cave roofs. Exterior walls of these caves are simple and without any decoration. The interior ceilings of these caves are decorated with
Situated on the left bank of Khandepar River about 3 km from Khandepar cave. This is a monolithic single cell lateritic rock-cut cave of early medeival period. Inside the cave Shiva Linga is placed on Yonipitha. Scholars believe that this cave has architectural similarities with Khandepar Caves and the caves at Narve and probably contemporary in time.
This is a single cell lateritic cave of early medieval period. It is devoid of pillars and Verandah. In this cave there is a raised platform carved inside. Architecturally this cave is similar to the other cave temples of Goa, wherein a raised platform is carved to install Shivalinga. Hence this cave might have been used as a Shiva temple.
This temple is dedicated to lord Shiva, worshipped in the form of ‘Linga’ as Nagesh. In the Ardhamandapa (entrance porch) there is an image of Nandi facing the Shivalinga. Infront of the temple there is a tank. There is a stone inscription of king Devrai I, of Vijaynagar dating to 1413 A.D in front of the temple. This inscription is in Devnagari Script and in Marathi language. It records grant made by people of Bandiwade (present day Bandora) to Shri Mahalakshmi and ShriNagesh. King Saundekar’s Palace is in the close vicinity of the temple.
This beautiful temple was reconstructed in 17th century. It has been shifted from Raia in Salcete Taluka to Shiroda in Ponda at its present location. In the garbhgriha is an idol of goddess of Kamakshi on a silver pedestal. In the sabhamandap (inner hall) there are exquisitely carved wooden pillars. In front of the temple there is a Deepstambha.
This is early medieval temple dedicated to Shri Saptakoteshwar on the bank of the river Khandepar. Here Shri Saptakoteshwar is worshipped in the form of ‘Linga’. Garbagriha of this temple consists of rock-cut cave. The temple was built using laterite stones and the door jamb in schist stone. The temple was in ruins and the present structure was raised in the year 2010.
This temple dedicated to Shri Madhav, Govind, Rameshwar is located at Agapur (Agasthipur) village in Ponda taluka. It is Trikutachala (triple) shrine and the temple is devoted to the Vaishnavite deities.
This temple is constructed with a locally available laterite except for the door jams, schist stone has been used. Three shrines are rectangular and built next to each other in a row. Each shrine is topped by a laterite dome and have roofs covered with Mangalore tiles.
This temple is important in two ways, firstly it seems to have been closely associated with settlement Jaina people in village Bandiwade and secondly establishment of Jaina cult in Goa during the Vijayanagar period. It was reconstructed during the Vijayanagar period in 15th Century; the structure is square shaped and built of laterite blocks with grilled windows.
This Fort is constructed at the right bank of the river Chapora. This river front fort, with four bastions and deep moat for defence, was built on the site of a pre-Portuguese foundation on the Chapora River. It acted as an important medium between the old Bijapuri coastal port of Shahpura (Chapora) and became the 18th century border between Goa and Bhonsles of Sawantwadi. It was captured from Bhonsles by Marquis de Castello Novo in 1746. It was a crucial victory for the Estado, earning the Viceroy the title of ‘Marques of Alorna’. The fort itself was rebuilt and renamed Santa Cruz de Alorna. In 1761 it was again under Bhonsles and then it was captured by Dom Frederico Guilherme de Souza Sakhali fort in 1781.
Visual expression of the prehistoric, hunting & gathering communities can be evidenced as ‘Rock Art’ (Petroglyphs), at Pansaimal in Sanguem Taluka. Located on the banks of River Kushawati, it is one of the rich site of rock engravings, on the laterite bedrock, in India. In this gallery of Rock Art engravings, one can observe carved impressions of deer, zebu bulls, a labyrinth, X-ray bulls, humped bulls, bull fight and human figures etc.
The granite rock on which these carvings can be seen is referred to by locals, as “Dudha Fator” (Stone of Milk). These carvings dating to the pre-historic age, offer a very artistic & perceptible expressions of the contemporary community. The carvings, on this stone, incised at the top, depict miniscule but realistic carvings of animals including a Zebu Bull, deer and ibexes. At the centre of the stone, lies an axe shaped symbol, identified by scholars as a “vulva”, the symbol of fertility.
The British Cemetery is located outside the fortification of Cabo Fortress of the 17th Century; which is now used as the residence of the Governor called ‘Raj Bhavan’. This fort was used by British troops as their base during their occupation of Goa during the Napoleonic wars i.e. from 1798 to 1813. This cemetery was built during this period and was used by the British families. It is surrounded by a massive laterite stone wall. This burial site has 47 tombs. Sepulchral relics numbering about 56 grave stones are of laterite. The earliest burial according to the tomb stone is dated 19th December 1808 and the last burial is dated 10th August 1912.
This fort was constructed by Portuguese on the island of Jua to protect the eastern and northern eastern boundaries of the then Portuguese territories. In 1668 during the tenure of Viceroy JoãoNunes de Cunha, Conde de S. Vicente, this fortification in St. Estevão Island was erected. The fortification is simple but shows the influence of Portuguese architecture with squarish bastions and non-descript and non-decorative gateway. Maratha King Chhatrapati Sambhaji captured the fort in 1683 and abandoned it soon after the battle of the island of Santo Estevão.
The Fort is situated in the small island of Khorjuvem in Bardez and lies across Aldona towards the coast surrounded by waters of Mapusa River. The island was taken from the Bhonsles by the then Governor in 1705 and during his tenure annexed it and constructed a fort there in 1705. It has a Chapel.
The main purpose was to protect their northern frontier from the attack of Marathas. This fort also served as a place for military manoeuvres, for the students of Military School.
This is a lateritic cave which dates back to the early medieval period on stylistic grounds. It consists of a simple rectangular cell which has a squarishYonipitha with a Linga and two pillars and pilasters in the porch. Open courtyard in front is carved out of the same rock surface showing developed architectural elements in the cock cut architecture of Goa.
Historians believe that this Masjid was built during the Adilshahi rule over Goa. It is built in laterite and the tank is dotted with mehrab arches and is similar to those of the Safa Masjid, Ponda. Laterite columns of the old Masjid, capped with basalt can be still seen here at Surla Tar. A dargah of a Pir (locally known as Pira-dev) is located near the Masjid. This ‘Pir’ has great significance in the cultural traditions of this village. Ruins of a pathway (paved in laterite), locally known as ‘Paaz’ leading to the old ferry point can also be seen in the vicinity of this Mosque.
This Fort was built by Viceroy D. Francisco da Gama, Conde de Vidigueira and the Admiral of Portuguese India, who laid its foundation stone in April 1624. It overlooks the port of Mormugao. It was built to protect the harbour situated near Vasco da Gama town. Primarily, Mormugao was generalized to be the capital of the Portuguese empire, hence the fort was erected and in 1703 the Viceroy moved into the town. The Maratha warriors continued to attack the town and the fort and finally the Portuguese gave up the township in preference for Old Goa. The fort included three magazines, towering bulwarks, a chapel and accommodation for a garrison.
This is a lateritic rock cut cave with two cells of early medieval period, in Consua village of Mormugao taluka. This cave has a square Yoni-Pitha. The Linga from this cave was detached from the Yoni-Pitha and was lying in a pond in the vicinity of the cave. Subsequently the Linga from this cave was acquired by the State Museum of Goa in 1985. Many scholars are of the opinion that this is one of the earliest Lingas from Goa.
This single cell rectangular cave is chisselled out, in the laterite on the bank of river Dudhsagar. The cave has two pillars; both the pillars have mouldings at the top part. A sculpture of Tiger is carved on a raised platform, cut out from the parent rock depicting worship of folk deity called ‘Vaghro-dev’. The sculpture is presently in weathered condition.
It was built by Maharaja Khem Sawant Bhonsle, the king of Sawantwadi in the 17th Century. It was later taken over by the Portuguese. It lies at the North of river terekhol to protect the areas. The fort houses a 100 year old church by the name of St. Anthony. Later this Fort played important role as border-post for Portuguese. This Fort was a witness to several activities of freedom fighters of the Goa’s Liberation Struggle till 1961.
The remains of the fort are now converted into a hotel by the name of Terekhol Fort Heritage.